Shoreline Entitlement: White Privilege and White Space in Northern Michigan

Before colonization the shoreline of the Great Lakes was 100% Anishinaabe, Algonquin, and Haudenosaunee operated and maintained.  Using the word “ownership,” has colonization and dominion attached to it so it is best to use English words that have a less colonizing tone.  Could you imagine how beautiful the shoreline was with no gigantic towering mansions or yacht clubs?  Could you imagine no hateful anti-Indian sentiment because we can do what we have been doing for thousands of years which is hunt, fish, and gather as our innate right as the original people of this land?  The beauty of Anishinaabe Aki before colonization was beyond words, cliché saying, but beyond English words more specifically, eh?  What would it be like if we could stand along the shore without getting the White gaze and racial macro-aggression from the penny millionaire tourists who think we shouldn’t be there?  The water was pure and there was no pipelines running underneath certain areas like the Straits of Mackinac near Mackinac Island, which was a ceremonial place for our Anishinaabe people for thousands of years. 

Then came the terra nullius (Latin for “nobody’s land”) believers and Christian inquisitionist to save us when we didn’t need saving at all.  Then came Father Marquette and Bishop Baraga.  Indians needed Christianity because we were sinners and not living according to the great patriarchal colonial and abusive father, who had long before broken down the tribes of Europe.  Then came land being divided up and sold.   “Manifest Destiny,” meant colonization, genocide, assimilation, and the creation of the biggest form of environmental racism, the reservation system.  Land allotments and land for sale for the hungry immigrant who ran from persecution only to persecute us.  Then came poverty created by White patriarchal settler colonialism.  Then our women were regulated to wear skirts and cook for men and no longer made the men cook for us.  As our traditional economies, harvesting, and gathering of foods prior to colonization had gender balance.  Then came abuse, silencing, denying depression, which led to greater oppression, because we were not allowed to speak about the abhorrent land, culture, and soul loss.  We had to “integrate” into patriarchal White settler colonialism only to be marginalized, oppressed further, discriminated against, denied access to our waterways, harvesting traditional foods, and denied existence in a consistent racially discriminating majority culture. 

What is Shoreline Entitlement?

“For those in power in the West… Whiteness is felt to be the human condition… it alone defines normality and fully inhabits it… White people have power and believe that they think, feel and act like and for all people; White people, unable to see their particularity, cannot take account of other people’s; White people create dominant images of the world and don’t quite see that they thus construct the world in their own image; White people set the standards of humanity by which they are bound to succeed and others bound to fail. Most of this is not done deliberately and maliciously; there are enormous variations in power amongst White people to do with class, gender, and other factors; goodwill is not unheard of in White people’s engagement with others.  White power none the less reproduces itself regardless of intention, power differences and goodwill, and overwhelmingly because it is not seen as Whiteness, but as normal.” – Richard Dyer, White: Essays on Race and Culture

  1. White possession is a regime of power while infiltrates all larger systems.
  2. Whiteness is invisible to White people.
  3. White possession is hyper visible to Indigenous people.
  4. The beach and shoreline as a White masculine space.
  5. The Indigenous body and land as a White possession.
  6. The problematic racial Black/White binary as Indigenous erasure.
  7. Equal opportunity is defined under patriarchal White sovereignty.
  8. Treaty rights are limiting, partial, controlled, and monitored rights. 
  9. The denial of Métis identity in colonial and occupied United States.
  10. Denial of woman’s and Two-Spirit's space on the shoreline and waterways. 
USDA report ( Major Uses of Land in the United States, 2007 )

USDA report (Major Uses of Land in the United States, 2007)

The Disease of Colonization

“Race matters in the lives of all peoples; for some people it confers unearned privileges, and for others it is the mark of inferiority.  Daily newspapers, radio, television, and social media usually portray Indigenous peoples as a deficit model of humanity.  We are overrepresented as always lacking, dysfunctional, alcoholic, violent, needy, and lazy whether we are living in Illinois, Auckland, Honolulu, Toronto, or Brisbane.  For Indigenous people, White possession is not unmarked, unnamed, or invisible; it is hypervisible.” – The White Possessive: Property, Power, and Indigenous Sovereignty, by Aileen Moreton-Robinson

White possession is very visible to Native people as in land, when we want to hunt, when we want to put our boat on the water and fish, when we want to enjoy a walk along the shoreline of one of the Great Lakes, or knowing that the dialogue on “natural resources” focuses on patriarchal “environmentalism” as a special White middle class interest.  Often non-Native people will say things, “why is so and so defensive?”  The majority of Native people can personally attest to discrimination and racism which leads us to be on the defense at all times or we have severe trauma not just from the majority culture but within our own non-communities because of blood quantum, tribal politics, and internalized oppression.  We are survivors of genocide who are told to “get over it,” while being simultaneously discriminated against, stereotyped via mascots, and our issues blatantly censored in the lamestream media.  Additionally, we have to exist within White possessions, space, and entitlement while explaining our identity when we don’t fit into the stereotypical perspective of what it means to be Indian.  Finally, the visibility of White possession outright ignores sovereignty, land, and Native lives through colonial legislation, injustice systems, police, military, family systems, and “property rights.” 

Where White possession is most visible is along the shoreline of the Great Lakes, particularly Lake Michigan.  Think about the land before colonization.  I always am but my viewpoint is rare because it is not steeped in patriarchy but the strong foundation of my ancestors from a Two-Spirit matriarchal view.  In the summer I spend a lot of time on the shoreline.  Often engaging in prayer or running/walking.  This is one way to decolonize daily.  Decolonization is every single step.  When the White gaze comes my way from tourists who think Indians don't exist anymore I just stare right back at them.  I advocate for my serenity and peace.  With serenity I can counter racism and bigotry with love (zaagidewin).  Therefore, I stand on the shore while holding it down with decolonized love for the land, water, our relations, ancestors, family, community, and healing.  What is powerful is holding the space when as Native people we have very little space.

The Dawes Act of 1887 – Land for Sale, Private Property

The truth is that White space is backed by federal laws in the colonial United States.  Redlining occurred in the major metropolitan areas in the United States so there was concentrated poverty within communities of color and White space in the suburbs.  For Native American people White space took everything and blocked our beautiful way of life in terms of traditional economies.  Every molecule of our existence and livelihood was swallowed up and backed by federal laws.  The Dawes Act of 1887 has four important stipulations which occur in an order that describes colonization and land loss.  These stipulations include the following: imposed individual land ownership, heirship, surplus land was opened up to White settlement, and checker boarding. 

A poem I wrote in 1998.   I was 16 years old. 

A poem I wrote in 1998.   I was 16 years old. 

What Settlers Can Do

Settlers don’t think much about Native people.  The general theme is everything is fine, I’ve got mine, and I’ll feel good if I send $20 to the local soup kitchen.  Settler colonialism has purposefully erased us and established a colonial nation with States.  Within States there are Counties.  Within Counties there are Cities, Towns, Townships, Villages, and Unincorporated Villages.  The un-incorporation sounds like it business, eh?  It is a colonial business and it has gone on way too long.  Settlers play a part in this business as maintained by the federal government to local government.  It is all the same. 

Settlers seem to be in denial of the problem like an addiction.  This occupied land by the colonial business of the United States is an addiction.  Many countries around the world don’t like the United States.  You can see why.  Although these countries are not perfect in how they have treated Indigenous people yet Canada, New Zealand, and Australia have at least started working reconciliation issues.  Meanwhile in the colonial United States there has been no movement.  Resource colonization, environmental racism, and job discrimination is continued colonization.  If you think colonization is over you are colonization denial and need to check into a decolonization anonymous group!

Settlers don’t know where to start.  Usually they want to work more and disconnect from their children by working 80 hours a week.  They want to numb out in front of TV or eat toxic foods.  They believe the “history” books in high school and pledge allegiance to genocide.  This land is not your land as this land is Native land.  Actually admitting you have a problem doesn’t mean you are enlightened.  By acknowledging you see and want to listen to Native people you are on the first step to being a settler ally.  Most settlers in the United States have a problem.  

Efforts to Honor Us and Our Shoreline

I believe we are being honored more than my Grandfather’s time.  There are water ceremonies and awareness drawn to communities like Aamjiwnaang First Nation in occupied Sarnia, Ontario, to water walks in many of our tribal communities throughout the entire Great Lakes.  However we have a lot of work to do to fully bring healing and justice within our Anishinaabe communities.  The stereotype is that Indian’s have casinos so they are fine now.  This is not true at all.   Land loss is culture loss.  We need space for grieving and healing.  We need space to be honored and acknowledged.  We need more space to the shoreline without fear of dealing with racism whether enjoying the Great Lakes or fishing.  Honor us and work hard to do so because our existence is resistance in the persistence of this toxicity of settler colonization.  Some of us are working hard to survive in this great oppression and rise above.  Work harder for us and be aware of more than your privilege.  Like any addiction after you acknowledge you have a problem you work hard to heal the root cause.   

_____________________________________________________________________________________

Works Cited

  1. Freire, Paulo (1970).  Pedagogy of the Oppressed.  The Continuum Publishing Company.
  2. Moreton-Robinson, A. (2015). The White possessive: Property, power, and indigenous sovereignty. University of Minnesota Press

Article: Michigan Sells Treaty-Protected, Pristine Public Land for Limestone Mine


A group of American Indians in Michigan have lost their bid to block a land transfer of nearly 9,000 acres to a company proposing a limestone mine—the “largest single public land deal in Michigan history,” according to the Detroit Free Press.

The attempted injunction was the last legal line of defense against the mine, which would cover as many as 13,000 acres, according to the Detroit Free Press. In the deal, which was approved in March, the state will sell 8,810 acres of “surface land or underground mineral rights” to Graymont, a Canadian mining company, for $4.53 million so it can build the limestone mine in the Upper Peninsula, the Detroit Free Press said.

The group—comprised of members of several tribes—had filed suit in Grand Rapids trying to stop the Michigan Natural Resources Director Keith Creagh from transferring land to Graymont Mining Co., based on treaty rights. The mine would be built on about 10,360 acres in the northern peninsula, the  Associated Press reported.

"The land subject to transfer is wholly within the 1836 Treaty of Washington Ceded Territory and subject to the conditions laid out in the 2007 Inland Consent Decree,” said lead plaintiff Phil Bellfy in a statement. “It would be unconstitutional for the MDNR Director to transfer those lands as we—American Indians—have Treaty rights to "the usual privileges of occupancy" on those 11,000 acres. We are asking the Court to step in and preserve our Treaty rights and enjoin Mr. Craegh from transferring that land."

Bellfy said that the land transfer is unconstitutional under treaty provisions. The Michigan Department of Resources announced on Tuesday March 10 that it would recommend Creagh approve the deal at the agency’s March 19 meeting.

Besides Bellfy, members of several area tribes are plaintiffs in the lawsuit—the Bay Mills Indian Community, 
Grand Traverse Band of Ottawa and Chippewa Indians, 
Little River Band of Ottawa Indians, 
Little Traverse Bay Bands of Odawa Indians and the Sault Ste. Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians. They are also backed by the Sierra Club and numerous residents who oppose the project, but the prospect of jobs in the economically beleaguered town won out.

Though the tribes were unsuccessful in their bid to get an injunction against the company, the judge did refer the matter to the Court’s Magistrate to see whether or not it should be assigned to the judge who is overseeing the consent decree, Bellfy said in the group’s statement.

Read more at http://indiancountrytodaymedianetwork.com/2015/04/14/michigan-sells-treaty-protected-pristine-public-land-limestone-mine-159996

Sacred Jingle Dress Dance for Chief Theresa Spence


Facebook event page 

SACRED JINGLE DRESS DANCE FOR CHIEF THERESA SPENCE

Saturday, December 15, 12:00pm

Ottawa – Victoria Island


By Saturday, December 15, Chief Theresa Spence of Attawapiskat will be on her fifth day of a hunger strike she undertook as a protest to ask that the rights of First Nations peoples and the Treaties be respected. Her hunger strike is for all of us.

Jingle Dress Dancer Rhonda White, family member of the late Maggie White from the community of Naotkamegwanning (Whitefish Bay) will be travelling to Ottawa on Friday to dance the sacred Jingle Dress dance gifted to them. She will be accompanied by Joyce White and Kathleen Skead.

The Sacred Jingle Dress Dance at Victoria Island will be an expression of the true meaning of the jingle dress, by dancing for healing for Ogimaa-kaan Spence and the healing of all Indigenous people at this time.

Concerned community members Tanya Kappo and Christi Belcourt are asking for your support to help bring the White family members to Ottawa for this sacred dance.

WE NEED TO RAISE AS MUCH MONEY FOR THIS AS WE CAN BY SATURDAY.

As you know, time is of the essence for Chief Spence and her efforts. We will work to raise $10,000.00 to pay for travel and costs associated with this event. If there are any leftover funds, they will be given to Chief Spence for whatever her needs are during her time at Victoria Island.

No amount is too small. Please donate by :
http://www.gofundme.com/1o8je0?utm_campaign=Emails&utm_source=sendgrid.com&utm_medium=email

The lead drum: Lynx Clan of Whitefish Bay

ALL JINGLE DRESS DANCERS are invited to participate in this sacred jingle dress dance for Chief Spence in Ottawa this Saturday. However, as this is a sacred ceremonial jingle dress dance, protocols must be strictly followed and adhered to.

This is NOT a powwow demonstration.

Please see the wall of this event for information on protocol.

This effort is endorsed by Chief Joyce White of Naotkamegwanning (Whitefish Bay) and Treaty 3 Ogitchitaa, Warren White.

Article - Contaminated culture: Native people struggle with tainted resources, lost identity

Toban Black/flickr. The Anishinaabe people from Aamjiwnaang First Nation are surrounded by heavy industry.
For the Anishinaabe people at the southernmost tip of Lake Huron, cedar is not just a tree – it is sacred. Used in medicines and teas, the tree’s roots, bark and sap have been central to their physical, mental and cultural wellbeing for centuries. “We smudge with it, as singers we inhale it, as a medicine we bathe in it,” said Ron Plain, an Anishinaabe tribe member. But the tribe has abandoned its generations-old tradition. The cedar is tainted with cadmium, a metal linked to cancer and learning disabilities. In this region of Ontario, dubbed “Chemical Valley,” the contamination is part of everyday life for the Anishinaabe. For decades, indigenous people in the United States and Canada have been burdened with health problems linked to environmental pollutants. But that isn’t their only sacrifice: Pollution is crippling some tribes’ culture. Their native foods, water, medicines, language and ceremonies, as well as their traditional techniques of farming, hunting and fishing, have been jeopardized by contaminants and development. And as indigenous people lose these vital aspects of their lives, their identity is lost, too.

By Brian Bienkowski
Staff Writer
Environmental Health News
October 25, 2012

For the Anishinaabe people at the southernmost tip of Lake Huron, cedar is not just a tree – it is sacred. Used in medicines and teas, the tree’s roots, bark and sap have been central to their physical, mental and cultural wellbeing for centuries.

“We smudge with it, as singers we inhale it, as a medicine we bathe in it,” said Ron Plain, an Anishinaabe tribe member and environmental policy analyst at the Southern First Nation Secretariat.

But the tribe has abandoned its generations-old tradition. The cedar is tainted with cadmium, a metal linked to cancer and learning disabilities. In this region of Ontario, dubbed “Chemical Valley,” the contamination is part of everyday life for the Anishinaabe.

For decades, indigenous people in the United States and Canada have been burdened with health problems linked to environmental pollutants. But that isn’t their only sacrifice: Pollution is crippling some tribes’ culture, too.

Their native foods, water, medicines, language and ceremonies, as well as their traditional techniques of farming, hunting and fishing, have been jeopardized by contaminants and development. And as indigenous people lose these vital aspects of their lives, their identity is lost, too.

“Animals have died off or left, the water is no good. This is not the world that we know and rely on,” said Kathy Sanchez, a member of the Tewa Pueblo, a tribe in New Mexico that is living with a legacy of pollution from uranium mining.

“It’s contaminated our culture.”

Continue reading the rest of the article on Intercontinental Cry

Also posted on Keepers of the Water

Tribal Mining Forum at Keweenaw Bay

The KBIC Mining Outreach & Education Initiative is hosting its first ever Tribal Mining Forum on Friday, May 11th – Saturday, May 12th.

The Mining Forum will take place at the Niiwin Akeaa Center (Ojibwa Community College) Gymnasium starting at 1pm on Friday and 9am on Saturday. On Friday, a Community Potluck Dinner will also take place at 6pm.

The purpose of this forum is to educate the community on mining in order to increase awareness of its historical and contemporary impacts within the Lake Superior basin and Ojibwa ceded territory.
An informed community will have more capacity for protecting the environment and envisioning sustainable solutions for our future.

The Keynote Speaker will be Bad River Tribal Chairman Mike Wiggins Jr., whose community recently succeeded in preventing rollbacks to Wisconsin mining law that would have permitted a large taconite mine upstream from their community.

The event will also include guest speakers from the Keweenaw Bay Indian Community, Mole Lake Sokaogon Chippewa Community, Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa, Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission, Chippewa-Ottawa Resource Authority, National Wildlife Federation and the U.S. Department of Interior.

Anyone who is curious or concerned about the new wave of mining interest throughout much of the western U.P. and the Lake Superior watershed should definitely come to this event to learn more.

Interested in kick-starting the Mining Forum? You can also catch the next “Mining Impacts on Native Lands” Film Screening of Tar Creek on Wednesday, May 9th, 6pm at the Ojibwa Casino Chippewa Room. Tar Creek is a must see highlighting significant environmental devastation from one of the world’s largest lead and zinc mines in northeastern Oklahoma.


For more information, contact Jessica Koski, KBIC Mining Technical Assistant, at 524-5757 ext. 25. 

--------------------------------------

TENTATIVE AGENDA

Friday, May 11th
1pm Welcome and Opening Prayer
Keynote by Mike Wiggins Jr., Chairman of the Bad River Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
Lessons from the Crandon Mine by Tina VanZile of the Mole Lake Sokaogon Chippewa Community
Historical Environmental Impacts of Mining in the Lake Superior Basin by Mike Ripley of the Chippewa-Ottawa Resource Authority
4:30pm Sand Point Stamp Sands Restoration Tour (optional)
6:00pm Community Potluck Dinner & Drumming

Saturday, May 12th
Sunrise Water Ceremony
Light Breakfast
9am Opening Remarks
Lake Superior Basin Mining Overview by the Great Lakes Indian Fish & Wildlife Commission
U.P. Mining Updates & Issues by Chuck Brumleve, Environmental Mining Specialist for the KBIC
Student & Community Presentations
12-1pm Lunch
Sulfide Mining Policy & Regulation by Michelle Halley of the National Wildlife Federation
Tribal Natural Resource Damages by Mark Barash with the U.S. Department of Interior
Implications to Treaty Rights by George Newago & Brian Goodwin from the Red Cliff Band of Lake Superior Chippewa
4:30pm Closing Remarks