Article - Indigenous Women and Two-Spirited People: Our Work is Decolonization!

“Be a Good Girl” by Tania Willard
“Be a Good Girl” by Tania Willard

by Chelsea Vowel

Indigenous women and two-spirited people are leading a resurgence movement in iyiniwi-ministik, the People’s Island.  They draw on their traditional roles as protectors of the land and water to inform their work in our communities, and root themselves in their specific socio-political orders to counter colonialism and to revitalize language and culture. Rather than being defined as a struggle against patriarchal gender roles and the division of labour, Indigenous women and two-spirited people’s work combats the imposition of colonial barriers. The goal is not to attain gender equality, but rather to restore Indigenous nationhood, which includes gender equality and respect for gender fluidity.

As I write this I can hear Khelsilem Rivers (Skwxwú7mesh-Kwakwaka‘wakw), a community organizer from Vancouver, pointing out that not all Indigenous peoples have the same traditions, and that to avoid perpetuating Pan-Indian stereotypes, we need to have honest discussions about the diversity of our traditions. This is an important point indeed, as not all Indigenous nations have the same traditions with respect to the fluidity of gender roles. Romanticizing ourselves as a collective unfortunately plays into “noble savage” stereotypes and does damage in the long run. With so many Indigenous people disconnected from their specific traditions, even so-called positive stereotypes are a form of continuing erasure.

Even among nations with traditional binary gender roles or hierarchical socio-political orders, there is nothing that can accurately compare to the system of patriarchy imposed by colonialism which mainstream Settler feminism aligns itself against. Our internal struggles with traditional roles are not analogous to the issues that Settler peoples have with their traditions, and so using western liberal theory to deconstruct them is inherently incongruous.

Indigenous traditions are not frozen in time any more than other people’s traditions are. Our peoples have been trading more than goods for thousands of years, passing along ceremonies, medicines, and ideas just as easily as copper and fish. We are capable of change and have no reason not to embrace it, as long as that change respects our reciprocal obligations to one another and to the territories in which we live. We do not need to look to western liberal notions of individual equality, which so often ignore our communal existence and insist that land and resources must be thought of as property. Instead, we can look to the laws of our Indigenous neighbours if we need to review our traditions. It is precisely this approach that is being taken up by many women and two-spirited individuals in Indigenous communities as they pursue sexual health, revitalization of language and culture, and renewal of relationships with the land.

In a recent piece titled “Beyond Eve Ensler: What Should Organizing Against Gender Violence Look Like,” Cherokee scholar Andrea Smith points out that, “the very category of ‘woman’ has served as a tool of violence… Colonialism has operated by imposing a gender binary system in indigenous communities in order to facilitate the imposition of colonial heteropatriarchy.” She goes on to suggest that organizing around violence against trans and two-spirited peoples is central to any struggle against gender violence. It is important to understand that this struggle against gender violence is central to Indigenous decolonization efforts, and cannot be separated from that context.

The focus on trans and two-spirited people as central to decolonization is incredibly important. The groundbreaking work of the Native Youth Sexual Health Network (NYSHN) epitomizes this approach. NYSHN works with “Indigenous peoples across the United States and Canada to advocate for and build strong, comprehensive, and culturally safe sexuality and reproductive health, rights, and justice initiatives in their own communities.” NYSHN provides pragmatic, honest, and clear information on sexual health, and also engages in the renewal and revitalization of Indigenous traditions related to all aspects of Indigenous health.

The barriers currently facing Indigenous women and two-spirited people are severe and informed by the history of colonialism. These barriers include the refusal of the Canadian government to institute an inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women, as well as the ongoing removal of Indigenous children from their families in numbers that exceed those taken by the residential school system and the sixties scoop combined.  This cataclysmic interference has taken a devastating toll on the health of all of our people, but colonially imposed gender imbalances ensure that Indigenous women and two-spirited people bear the brunt of the consequences. The added marginalization experienced by two-spirited people can sometimes be overlooked because the social outcomes for Indigenous peoples are already, in general, very grim. To look at any of this solely through the lens of Western feminism is to miss the larger picture.

The imposition of colonial patriarchy has marginalized Indigenous women and two-spirited people through Indian Act governance systems, and the Indian Act itself. Until 1985, when amendments were made to the Indian Act, an Indigenous woman who married a non-Indigenous man lost her legal status as an Indian, and was unable to pass on status to her children. In this way, generations of women and their children were denied their identities, and even their homes. The impact of the loss of legal identity is still being felt among Indigenous people through the struggle to reconnect with their families and communities.

Until very recently, two-spirited people were not recognized at all by Canadian law or society. In the eyes of Canadians they do not exist—they are concealed by the gender-essentialized structures of colonialism, which have abolished their traditional places in Indigenous societies. So effective were Church- and government-led erasures of our two-spirited peoples, that reconstructing traditional two-spirited roles and ceremonies is too often seen as peripheral to wider movements of resurgence. Andrea Smith’s call to recenter our resurgence around two-spirited people, and the work of groups like the NYSHN, reminds us that we must decolonize even our priorities as Indigenous peoples.

Structural erasures of Indigenous women and two-spirited people have had a role in shaping their work as agents of resurgence. In a way, the overwhelming masculinization of Indian Act governance systems has ensured that Indigenous women and two-spirited people are less likely to be co-opted by colonial powers, and less invested in maintaining those colonial structures. Indigenous women have continued to exercise power through traditional (and often unpaid) ways, maintaining traditional governance structures in many communities. Two-spirited people have not necessarily experienced the same retention of traditional roles, however, and much work is needed to reconstruct and recenter our two-spirited relations within our communities. Acknowledging and honouring two-spirited peoples is vital to resisting resurgence based on gender essentialisms that purport to “honour women” while simply recreating colonial patriarchal gender roles with a bit of “Indian flair.”

The deliberate exclusion of Indigenous women and two-spirited people from colonial structures of power has meant that almost by default, the work of these people is highly politicized, as it must happen outside those colonial structures. This is not to say that Indigenous women and two-spirited people have absolutely no access to colonial structures of power. In recent years, there has been more inclusion of women, though not necessarily of two-spirited people, in Indian Act governance systems. Yet one has only to do a head count of male to female Indian Act Chiefs to notice this recent inclusion shamefully mirrors the “inclusion” of women in Canadian politics, which is tokenism at best.

Indigenous women and two-spirited people experience all of the barriers faced by Settler women and LGBT people, as well as the barriers experienced by Indigenous people in a state defined by Settler colonialism. These barriers cannot be sifted out and separated from one another. If you understand this, it is much easier to comprehend the work being done by Indigenous people like Leanne Simpson, Cindy Blackstock, Andrea Smith, Christi Belcourt, Lee Maracle, Maria Campbell, Bridget Tolley, Jessica Danforth, and so many others. All of these people root their work in their Indigenous traditions, bringing forth traditional understandings in acts of resurgence so potent, and so compelling, that I urge every single person living in the People’s Island to become familiar with them.

Indigenous women and two-spirited people must bear a heavy burden, working to re-establish and revitalize Indigenous socio-political orders, exercise sovereignty, and live resurgence: indeed it can be very dangerous and draining work. It should not be required at all. We should not have to work so hard to overcome barriers imposed by people who were supposed to share these lands with us, as guests and eventually as kin. Nonetheless, to exist as an Indigenous woman or two-spirited person is an inherently political act. Simply resisting our erasure is part of our work.

êkosi ♦

ARTIST STATEMENT: “BE A GOOD GIRL”

“Be a Good Girl” (2006 woodcut print, courtesy of the Collection of Aboriginal and Northern Affairs Canada) is a reflection on the gendered work expectations and training of women in the 1950s. I have explored this topic by looking at Indian residential schools, and the ways in which young Native women were trained in an effort to transform them into good working-class wives and workers. The Indian residential school system had a half-day labour program for girls, which was abolished in 1952 out of concern that children were not receiving an education, but were only serving the financial needs of the school. Residential schools forbade Native children from speaking their languages or practicing their culture in an attempt to mold them, for their “salvation,” into productive members of white, capitalist society. The residential schools were part of a dark history of racism and genocide in Canada and continue to have negative effects. This sort of gendered work training, however, was not reserved for the assimilation of Natives; training schools like the Ontario Training School for Girls rehabilitated young women with “loose” morals and other traits that were not tolerated in the ’50s. Both white working class and Native girls attended these training schools. This piece is about the conflicts, spiritual paradoxes, and societal expectations of young women in the ’50s.

Tania Willard, Secwepemc Nation, is an artist and designer based in Vancouver. Through her art and design she hopes to communicate the stories and voices we are unable to hear—the voices that are missing and erased from our histories and realities.

“Indigenous Women and Two-Spirited People: Our Work is Decolonization” is from our spring 2014 issue, Women’s Work

Article: Women Take Over the Capitol to Rally and Lobby Legislators TOMORROW (7/18/2012)

"Who: Individual women from around Michigan gathering in Lansing to learn about current legislative proposals and engage with their legislators on a variety of policy issues that impact their own lives. 

Rally Speakers: Danielle Atkinson with Mothering Justice, Emily Dievendorf with Equality Now, Meghan Groen with Planned Parenthood Advocates of Michigan, State Representative Ellen Cogen Lipton, Millie Hall with Coalition of Labor Union Women, Andrea Hunter with United Steelworkers, Renee Chelian with Northland Family Planning, Vee Heymach with Moms Clean Air Force, Katie Oppenheim with Michigan Nurses Association, Afrykayn Moon with Breastfeeding Mothers Unite

When: Rally: Wednesday, July 18, 2012 at 11 a.m.- Noon
Lobbying: Wednesday, July 18, 2012 throughout day

Where: The Capitol Building Lawn, Downtown Lansing

What: Hundreds of women will meet at the Capitol to share their vision for a better Michigan for women and make their voices heard with Michigan legislators.
 
Why: Michigan women are growing increasingly concerned about policies impacting education, the economy, reproductive justice, the environment, violence against women and girls, and healthcare. There are currently only 4 women in the Michigan Senate, and 27 female representatives in the Michigan House – yet in this legislative session alone, over 140 bills have been introduced that directly affect women’s rights in Michigan. Thirty-six bills make it more difficult to access reproductive health care services and if signed into law, HB 5711 would virtually eliminate access to abortion services even in cases of rape, incest, or when the health of the woman is affected."

Read more here - Women Take Over the Capitol to Rally and Lobby Legislators TOMORROW (7/18/2012)

Updates - Reproductive Rights Battle in Michigan



 Photo: Thursday, June 14, I was able to attend a protest at the 
Capitol.  Here we are being fierce inside the house of oppression.

EVENTS

TONIGHT at 5 pm -- Vaginas Take Back the Capitol

EVE ENSLER is flying to Michigan to take back the capitol with a special performance of The Vagina Monologues, starring Eve herself, along with your favorite legislators!

So far, the cast includes Eve Ensler, along with:

Rep. Lisa Brown (D-West Bloomfield)
Sen. Rebekah Warren (D-Ann Arbor)
Sen. Gretchen Whitmer (D-East Lansing)
Rep. Barb Byrum (D- Onondaga)
Rep. Stacy Erwin Oakes (D-Saginaw)
Rep. Dian Slavens (D- Canton Township)
Rep. Rashida Tlaib (D- Detroit)
Rep. Vicki Barnett (D-Farmington Hills)
Rep. Joan Bauer (D-Lansing)
Rep. Ellen Cogen Lipton (D-Huntington Woods)
Rep. Maureen Stapleton (D-Detroit)

...with more to be announced soon!



ARTICLES

EXCLUSIVE: Interview with Eve Ensler, creator of The Vagina Monologues to be performed on Capitol steps tomorrow

Nice girls don't say 'vagina' -- what the Rep. Lisa Brown controversy is really about (Susan J. Demas column)

The High Price of Michigan's Anti-Women Crusade

Nonsensical GOP Spokesperson Says Female Legislator Was Banned for Supposed Rape Metaphors, Not ‘Vagina’

Truthdigger of the Week: Michigan Rep. Lisa Brown

Did Someone Say Vagina

Vagina, Vagina, Vagina

Protest in Lansing TUESDAY June 12th! Stop the Attacks on Women's Health!


Please forward this post, repost, tweet it, facebook it, blog it, take action, attend the protest if you can, email/call your representatives, share with others!   Link to facebook event page.

On Tuesday, June 12, the most dangerous and sweeping attack on women’s health in our state’s history is expected to come up for a vote in the Michigan House of Representatives. If passed, House Bills 5711, 5712, and 5713 would have a devastating impact on women’s reproductive health and access to abortion services in the state. At the House Health Policy Committee hearing on Thursday, in front of an audience of nearly 100 supporters of women’s health, Committee Chair, Gail Haines, refused to allow any women to testify in opposition.

This legislative assault is being called one of the most extreme in the country. The bills are being rushed through the legislative process to silence objections and we can’t allow that to happen.

As elected officials consider legislation that would have far-reaching, unconscionable consequences, we want to make it loud and clear - WE'RE FIGHTING BACK!

Join us on Tuesday, June 12, to protest the attacks on women's health. We will meet in front of the Capitol Building at 1:00pm. House Session is scheduled to begin at 1:30. Show up in your bright pink!

We will have FREE “Women are Watching…And We Vote” T-shirts!

Tuesday, June 12
Michigan Capitol Building
1:00pm – 3:00pm

For more information, links to online actions and other ways to get involved, visit http://miplannedparenthood.org/page/war-women-michigan

ARTICLES 

Michigan’s Full Frontal Assault On Women

Rep. Bruce Rendon's Anti-Abortion "Super-Bill" On Fast Track in Michigan Legislature

Democrats and Planned Parenthood Leaders Respond to Michigan's Anti-Choice "Super-Bill"

Michigan’s Extreme Anti-Abortion Bill Leads the Nation in Batshittery

Michigan Anti-Abortion Bill, 'Most Extreme' In The Country, Barrels Through State House
 
Michigan Looks to Pass Nation's Most Anti-Abortion Law

Blood Quantum, Identity and Politics


 Basically this quote below describes how I feel.

"Through Congressional Acts like the 1887 Allotment Act racial discrimination became institutionalized. Racism touched every aspect of social life, sanctioning containment. Just as the South Africans during Apartheid would be in 1948, all native American Indians were racially classified into categories: Full Bloods, Mixed Bloods and White for the purpose of valid rights or claims of any persons to reservation lands. The Act not only institutionalized racism through a Blood quantum classification that has served Euro Americans in their efforts to further cut our population levels." ~ Robert Robideau, Anishinaabe Activist (1946-2009)

Stories on blood quantum, Native identity and politics

Blood quantum influences Native American identity

Less Than Blood Quantum

Blood Quantum

Love in the Time of Blood Quantum

Native American Intermarriage Puts Benefits At Risk

"Multiracial" identity and American Indians

Blood Quantum: A Relic Of Racism And Termination  - "Thus the recording of blood quantum is both a product of white racism and of white social science theories of a racist nature, and also a product of a plan wherein Native nations are expected to vanish when the white blood quantum reaches a certain level (above three-fourths, for example). For this latter reason alone, the use of blood quantum is exceedingly dangerous for Native Nations today, although the Bureau and some eastern Oklahoma Indians don't seem to care about this danger."


Check out this film on identity and blood quantum - Club Native.  Directed by Tracey Deer