Article - Indigenous Women and Two-Spirited People: Our Work is Decolonization!

“Be a Good Girl” by Tania Willard
“Be a Good Girl” by Tania Willard

by Chelsea Vowel

Indigenous women and two-spirited people are leading a resurgence movement in iyiniwi-ministik, the People’s Island.  They draw on their traditional roles as protectors of the land and water to inform their work in our communities, and root themselves in their specific socio-political orders to counter colonialism and to revitalize language and culture. Rather than being defined as a struggle against patriarchal gender roles and the division of labour, Indigenous women and two-spirited people’s work combats the imposition of colonial barriers. The goal is not to attain gender equality, but rather to restore Indigenous nationhood, which includes gender equality and respect for gender fluidity.

As I write this I can hear Khelsilem Rivers (Skwxwú7mesh-Kwakwaka‘wakw), a community organizer from Vancouver, pointing out that not all Indigenous peoples have the same traditions, and that to avoid perpetuating Pan-Indian stereotypes, we need to have honest discussions about the diversity of our traditions. This is an important point indeed, as not all Indigenous nations have the same traditions with respect to the fluidity of gender roles. Romanticizing ourselves as a collective unfortunately plays into “noble savage” stereotypes and does damage in the long run. With so many Indigenous people disconnected from their specific traditions, even so-called positive stereotypes are a form of continuing erasure.

Even among nations with traditional binary gender roles or hierarchical socio-political orders, there is nothing that can accurately compare to the system of patriarchy imposed by colonialism which mainstream Settler feminism aligns itself against. Our internal struggles with traditional roles are not analogous to the issues that Settler peoples have with their traditions, and so using western liberal theory to deconstruct them is inherently incongruous.

Indigenous traditions are not frozen in time any more than other people’s traditions are. Our peoples have been trading more than goods for thousands of years, passing along ceremonies, medicines, and ideas just as easily as copper and fish. We are capable of change and have no reason not to embrace it, as long as that change respects our reciprocal obligations to one another and to the territories in which we live. We do not need to look to western liberal notions of individual equality, which so often ignore our communal existence and insist that land and resources must be thought of as property. Instead, we can look to the laws of our Indigenous neighbours if we need to review our traditions. It is precisely this approach that is being taken up by many women and two-spirited individuals in Indigenous communities as they pursue sexual health, revitalization of language and culture, and renewal of relationships with the land.

In a recent piece titled “Beyond Eve Ensler: What Should Organizing Against Gender Violence Look Like,” Cherokee scholar Andrea Smith points out that, “the very category of ‘woman’ has served as a tool of violence… Colonialism has operated by imposing a gender binary system in indigenous communities in order to facilitate the imposition of colonial heteropatriarchy.” She goes on to suggest that organizing around violence against trans and two-spirited peoples is central to any struggle against gender violence. It is important to understand that this struggle against gender violence is central to Indigenous decolonization efforts, and cannot be separated from that context.

The focus on trans and two-spirited people as central to decolonization is incredibly important. The groundbreaking work of the Native Youth Sexual Health Network (NYSHN) epitomizes this approach. NYSHN works with “Indigenous peoples across the United States and Canada to advocate for and build strong, comprehensive, and culturally safe sexuality and reproductive health, rights, and justice initiatives in their own communities.” NYSHN provides pragmatic, honest, and clear information on sexual health, and also engages in the renewal and revitalization of Indigenous traditions related to all aspects of Indigenous health.

The barriers currently facing Indigenous women and two-spirited people are severe and informed by the history of colonialism. These barriers include the refusal of the Canadian government to institute an inquiry into missing and murdered Indigenous women, as well as the ongoing removal of Indigenous children from their families in numbers that exceed those taken by the residential school system and the sixties scoop combined.  This cataclysmic interference has taken a devastating toll on the health of all of our people, but colonially imposed gender imbalances ensure that Indigenous women and two-spirited people bear the brunt of the consequences. The added marginalization experienced by two-spirited people can sometimes be overlooked because the social outcomes for Indigenous peoples are already, in general, very grim. To look at any of this solely through the lens of Western feminism is to miss the larger picture.

The imposition of colonial patriarchy has marginalized Indigenous women and two-spirited people through Indian Act governance systems, and the Indian Act itself. Until 1985, when amendments were made to the Indian Act, an Indigenous woman who married a non-Indigenous man lost her legal status as an Indian, and was unable to pass on status to her children. In this way, generations of women and their children were denied their identities, and even their homes. The impact of the loss of legal identity is still being felt among Indigenous people through the struggle to reconnect with their families and communities.

Until very recently, two-spirited people were not recognized at all by Canadian law or society. In the eyes of Canadians they do not exist—they are concealed by the gender-essentialized structures of colonialism, which have abolished their traditional places in Indigenous societies. So effective were Church- and government-led erasures of our two-spirited peoples, that reconstructing traditional two-spirited roles and ceremonies is too often seen as peripheral to wider movements of resurgence. Andrea Smith’s call to recenter our resurgence around two-spirited people, and the work of groups like the NYSHN, reminds us that we must decolonize even our priorities as Indigenous peoples.

Structural erasures of Indigenous women and two-spirited people have had a role in shaping their work as agents of resurgence. In a way, the overwhelming masculinization of Indian Act governance systems has ensured that Indigenous women and two-spirited people are less likely to be co-opted by colonial powers, and less invested in maintaining those colonial structures. Indigenous women have continued to exercise power through traditional (and often unpaid) ways, maintaining traditional governance structures in many communities. Two-spirited people have not necessarily experienced the same retention of traditional roles, however, and much work is needed to reconstruct and recenter our two-spirited relations within our communities. Acknowledging and honouring two-spirited peoples is vital to resisting resurgence based on gender essentialisms that purport to “honour women” while simply recreating colonial patriarchal gender roles with a bit of “Indian flair.”

The deliberate exclusion of Indigenous women and two-spirited people from colonial structures of power has meant that almost by default, the work of these people is highly politicized, as it must happen outside those colonial structures. This is not to say that Indigenous women and two-spirited people have absolutely no access to colonial structures of power. In recent years, there has been more inclusion of women, though not necessarily of two-spirited people, in Indian Act governance systems. Yet one has only to do a head count of male to female Indian Act Chiefs to notice this recent inclusion shamefully mirrors the “inclusion” of women in Canadian politics, which is tokenism at best.

Indigenous women and two-spirited people experience all of the barriers faced by Settler women and LGBT people, as well as the barriers experienced by Indigenous people in a state defined by Settler colonialism. These barriers cannot be sifted out and separated from one another. If you understand this, it is much easier to comprehend the work being done by Indigenous people like Leanne Simpson, Cindy Blackstock, Andrea Smith, Christi Belcourt, Lee Maracle, Maria Campbell, Bridget Tolley, Jessica Danforth, and so many others. All of these people root their work in their Indigenous traditions, bringing forth traditional understandings in acts of resurgence so potent, and so compelling, that I urge every single person living in the People’s Island to become familiar with them.

Indigenous women and two-spirited people must bear a heavy burden, working to re-establish and revitalize Indigenous socio-political orders, exercise sovereignty, and live resurgence: indeed it can be very dangerous and draining work. It should not be required at all. We should not have to work so hard to overcome barriers imposed by people who were supposed to share these lands with us, as guests and eventually as kin. Nonetheless, to exist as an Indigenous woman or two-spirited person is an inherently political act. Simply resisting our erasure is part of our work.

êkosi ♦


“Be a Good Girl” (2006 woodcut print, courtesy of the Collection of Aboriginal and Northern Affairs Canada) is a reflection on the gendered work expectations and training of women in the 1950s. I have explored this topic by looking at Indian residential schools, and the ways in which young Native women were trained in an effort to transform them into good working-class wives and workers. The Indian residential school system had a half-day labour program for girls, which was abolished in 1952 out of concern that children were not receiving an education, but were only serving the financial needs of the school. Residential schools forbade Native children from speaking their languages or practicing their culture in an attempt to mold them, for their “salvation,” into productive members of white, capitalist society. The residential schools were part of a dark history of racism and genocide in Canada and continue to have negative effects. This sort of gendered work training, however, was not reserved for the assimilation of Natives; training schools like the Ontario Training School for Girls rehabilitated young women with “loose” morals and other traits that were not tolerated in the ’50s. Both white working class and Native girls attended these training schools. This piece is about the conflicts, spiritual paradoxes, and societal expectations of young women in the ’50s.

Tania Willard, Secwepemc Nation, is an artist and designer based in Vancouver. Through her art and design she hopes to communicate the stories and voices we are unable to hear—the voices that are missing and erased from our histories and realities.

“Indigenous Women and Two-Spirited People: Our Work is Decolonization” is from our spring 2014 issue, Women’s Work

Article: Women rising, the drum sounding: the restorative power of Idle No More

Detroit organizer Charity Hicks on why a movement led by the "marginalized of the marginalized" can reset our relationship to each other and the Earth.

by Charity Hicks
           A procession into the anti-fracking and land defence encampment at Rexton, New Brunswick near Elsipogtog First Nation on October 7.
A procession into the anti-fracking and land defence encampment at 
Rexton, New Brunswick near Elsipogtog First Nation on October 7.
Charity Hicks
Charity Hicks

This is an exert from a longer interview conducted with Charity Hicks by Martin Lukacs in Detroit, Michigan, in the summer of 2013.
When Idle No More broke out in December, 2012, in Detroit we said "wow". Indigenous peoples are just blossoming.

We've been under all these flowerings, with social movements rising all over the world – from Tunisia, to Egypt, to Greece. But what's so special about Idle No More is women's leadership. Indigenous women’s leadership is leadership from the most marginalized element inside of a marginalized element.

When you have leadership coming from the marginalized of the marginalized, the interlocking pressure of race and class and ethnic and gender hierarchies are shattered. Such women in leadership, those who have been subjected to wounds and trauma, represent a caring and concern. It's a beautiful place to be in, because as Idle No More idles no more, they're waking up and repairing relationships.

The first relationship you repair is the self to the self. So women that see themselves as the leadership, memory keepers and healers.

The second relationship of self to other selves. And here they're representing not just a returning but also a kind of reclaiming of the authenticity and relevancy of women, in the public space, in popular dialogue.

And the third relationship is of self to the earth. What's our relationship with our lakes and our streams and our waters and our food system and our ways of knowing? Everything about human beings and our culture are ways of being, but they're also ways of knowing. How do we know a tree, how do we know a plant, how do we know the fish are running at any particular time? It's because of memory, and women represent memory, the ancient memory flowering in the moment, being transmitted to future generations.

So Idle No More is profoundly restorative. It's what Canada needs. It's what the world needs. It's re-Indigenization.

But it's not just a movement, it's also a lived experience. Normally, when you're marginalized and you've been traumatized, you have normalized that. It becomes a part of your cognitive process. So to step into the public space and to really affirm your narrative is a huge risk. It's a profound leap from the margins, moving out from below the radar, and affirming a lived experience that we'd never heard, that we'd never known. So sometimes the biggest pushback comes from you. Sometimes you doubt your own voice; you doubt your own agency; you doubt even your own lived experience. To hold that, and to push back on it, is an empowering thing.

It's like the nervousness you feel when you know your people have been victimized, genocide has been wrought against your people, and here you are, with your mouth open. And you're somewhere beating a drum, or you're in public space, and you're like, this is what it is.

Indigenous peoples have been, just like African people, under twenty-five generations of root-shock. We relegated Indigenous peoples to the margins, placed them on reservations, treated them like children. And in that root-shock is pain, is profound depression, is hurt. And how you normally live with it is you drink, you self-medicate it.

In Indigenous communities, just like in African communities, there's this spectrum of reaction. Some of it is highly resilient and quiet and forever like embers, constantly on the burn. Some of it is non-resilient and extremely destructive. And you see all of that, the full spectrum in communities, in urban America. And what is beautiful about women, and authentic, is that in their standing, in their agency, in their voice, is the memory of all of our mothers, nurturance, re-connection. They're not only healing themselves, they're healing the most depressed parts of their communities.

Indigenous peoples are the ancestral memory of this place, they're the relationship translators of every piece of ecology in North America and all over the world. That memory, that voice, that leadership is what we need right now. Where-ever in the world Indigenous peoples are, to affirm themselves from positions of the margins, to take leadership and be authentic, rooted, and relevant, is so important.

It's a repairing on multiple levels. We're going to affirm ourselves, we're going to affirm our relations, and we're going to bring our values, our principles, our wisdom, our myth, our healing to the public space.

So Istanbul blows up, Tunis blows up, Cairo blows up, all of these public movements where people are en masse, a multitude. But it's the Indigenous multitude that is the most potent. Worldwide, there's like a movement of Indigenous peoples to reaffirm our humanity. It's saying: everything is not a dollar bill or currency, everything is not a consumer transaction. Wherever you are, on a reservation or not, the land is valuable. There's no hierarchy on the earth. There are ecosystems, and these exchanges, and they're all beautiful.

For people who are trying to re-Indigenize, and trying to question the social, political, economic order, Idle No More is like a harbinger.

That's not an easy thing to carry. Normally, if you're already marginalized, you have double and triple the amount of weight on you. So I'm very moved by Idle No More. I'm touched. I see it as a wonderful space to be in. It's healthy for us in this moment of economic and environmental crisis. It's beautiful to witness it, to hear drumming, to see round-dances, to hear the voice of women speaking traditional knowledge and memory and living a culture that speaks another language, that speaks of another way of being. We've gotten so far away from our roots.

As the oldest cultures that are place-based and rooted in ecosystem-based knowledge and exchange and reciprocity, that wisdom is like a roadmap. I'm not saying everything is with Indigenous people, but when we're all immigrants and all transplants and all in rootstock, they represent a way of knowing and being in place that we've lost. We pave over the environment to create roads so we can drive, we live in houses instead of in temporary structures, we heat them, we pool them, we place-make them on a human scale, but we never fully, unless we're camping, live in an ecological environment that challenges us to adapt and to be resilient.

So a lot of the abuse on the earth, on the fisheries, on the animals, on crops, on air and water quality, is going to have to be rethought on the basis of the question: what is our relationship to place?
The answer will not come from the elites. The international financial institutions and the United Nations are talking about carbon markets. But everything cannot be commodified. We're pimping the earth, we're externalizing the abuse, we're establishing markets so we can game nature. And the question from Indigenous communities is: "is that right?"

Why should the ecology “service” us? The arrogance, the narcissistic personality complex of humans to even craft a term like "ecological services"! That is just shocking. And we think we get to be the arrogant earth stewards of it all? We engineer water-ways, we are cloud brightening and geo-engineering. Excuse you, jet stream, you're not enough, we're going to value-add on you. Excuse you, mountain range, we're just going to blow you up.

So there's this profound question of integrity and ethics and principles and values afoot. Imagine that. Do you get to make money and abuse ecosystems at the same time? Some are now offering us the "rights of mother earth," led by Bolivia, from the south of the south. That helps us understand that we are a part of creation. We are part of energy exchanges. We're all feasting from the sun's energy. We're all living and breathing and dying in ecology.

To me, the earth is going to win in the end, because nothing trumps nature. Not even us and our arrogance. We're going to find out real quick what passing 400 ppm in the upper atmosphere of methane and carbon means. We're going to discover, particularly in our agricultural systems, on every continent, what climate shift means.

We're going to be billions of people in eco-adaptation strategies. And I don't know if we're all going to make it to those islands of elite eco-resiliency and 1% hoarding. But we're all going to be in trouble.

Now is the time when the women have to rise up. Now is the time when the drum has to be sounded. Now is the time to ask what do your mothers and fathers of generations of old have to say, about us being human and our relationship to everything.

Charity Hicks is the policy fellow for Eat 4 Health Detroit and the policy coordinator of the East Michigan Environmental Action Council. She is a writer, researcher, healer, artist, grower, organizer, cross-pollinator and sits on the board of several local and regional social and environmental justice organizations.

Poem: Ancestors Hold You

Simple diffusion,

Spirit two,
Walk in worlds,
Tear it down,

Crying over the land,
Hair touching the soil,

Crying over the water,
Hair flowing with the waves,
Of Her,
Of the beauty of Her,
Of the beauty of Michigami,
Of the beauty of nibi,
She is healing,

Matriarchy isn't about the broken circle,
Mending is truth,
Patriarchy wounded our men,
Wounded our sons,
Wounded our women,
Shunned our Two-spirit's,

Matriarchy is the tender blanket of love,
Matriarchy is the circle,
Uninterrupted by the violent thoughts of sexism,
Uninterrupted by the violent thoughts of racism,

Trees reach,
Trees ground,
Trees protect,

The weaving of the fine strands,
The weaving over the waters,

Sing for you,
Dance for you,
Surround you,
Hold you,
Love you,
When all was broken,
When your identity was tossed across the land,
Broken into pieces because of the destiny manifested by hungry hearts,

Heal you,
Listen to you,
Idle No More,

Grandmother holds you,
Grandfather holds you.

Article - Idle No More: A sincere challenge to my brothers |

Idle No More: A sincere challenge to my brothers |

Women lead the December 21, 2012 march on Parliament Hill. I was somewhere around Port Arthur, seeing the approaching-edge of a new chapter of Indigenous history we now see unfolding, when the realization began to take hold.

Four women -- Sylvia McAdam, Sheelah McLean, Jess Gordon, and Nina Wilson -- sparked and ignited a revolution, Idle No More, unseen in our time or perhaps any other, across Turtle Island.

More women -- Dr. Pam Palmater, Janice Makokis, Tanya Kappo -- helped fan those very flames now sweeping the globe, by means of social media teach-ins and presentations which helped bring the vision, message and understanding further to countless.

And now, in Ottawa, a woman from Attawapiskat First Nation, Chief Theresa Spence -- aligned with the concerns which Idle No More spearheaded and brought to the public consciousness -- has put her very life on the line to similarly challenge violations to our treaties, sovereignty, and in fact to our coming generations.
Not to mention those equally hardworking, but greatly invisible to the public eye in places reaching from Vancouver to Ottawa.

Do we notice a pattern?

I'm sure many do.

Let us acknowledge such a pattern reflected in the communities and Nations we each call Home.
Who are the pillars of our families that hold us together?

Who are those very sources of strength, heart and vision at the centre of our families?

Who are the subtle protectors and the voices of fire -- when either are crucial and needed?

It doesn't take much time to realize that it is our women.

And if we can all nod, agree and come to terms with the fact that women are the centre of our families, we must acknowledge that women are the centre of our communities, and further -- the centre and pillars of our nations.

Now we find ourselves at a very precarious time in our history and legacy, but equally a time of awakening if we seek to understand (and act to change) the track we are on -- and have been on in fundamental (and often overlooked and unspoken) ways.

My Relations, it's time to level.

Long before the 1969 White Paper and the current myriad of Bills put through by Stephen Harper's Conservative Government of Canada that mirrors the 1969 attempted encroachment, the first of many critical, colonial onslaughts upon our Nations were those which targeted our women.

Because of the strong linkages between the centres of our families, communities, and Nations - "if you collapse the strength of women, you collapse the strength of a Nation" was very much the guiding principle in conscious attempts to off-set such Nation-strength.

Undermining the role, significance, influence and authority was a key step in disempowering our Nations in far-reaching ways.

Stepping back, it doesn't take much to realize there is an undeniable and inarguable link between our women and the strength of our Nations -- most notably, history shows us that when the first has been disempowered, the latter is disempowered. By this very logic, empowering our women will empower our Nations -- and it is so very long overdue.

It is no surprise to me that at a time when our collective lifegiver (Ahki, the Earth - and Turtle Island) is being devalued and violated by industry and the frightening era of neoliberalism, our individual lifegivers (our Indigenous women, the keepers and protectors of our lands) continue to be devalued in importance and significance and violated by abuse, colonial legislations that target them specifically, and in a frightening era of too many missing and murdered indigenous women here in Canada.

Again stepping back, it doesn't take much to realize there is an undeniable and inarguable link between our collective lifegivers and the protectors of her, our individual lifegivers -- but most notably, our conscious decisions and choices to respect each.

Yes, respect.

But I truly feel that it must go beyond merely showing respect, life must be breathed into empowering -- empowering our collective lifegiver through our best efforts, but also giving our very best efforts to empowering (re-empowering) our individual life-givers, our women.

But how often do we hear about the "Old Boys Club"?

How often have we seen initiatives and progress brought to the forefront by our women, only to be ignored as one of our men (be it a Chief, a Council member, a representative, or a speaker) taking credit, showing disrespect, or simply not acknowledging their central role in such change?

Or how often have our women's voices been silenced by being spoken over -- or even ignored -- by our male leaders?

This is not to generalize that we do not have solid and integral male leaders who support our women at every turn and who have been standing strong and supportive to the movement -- also quite integral to the growth and impact on our times -- but this matter being challenged here is common enough to examine today to envision (a different) tomorrow.

I believe that the attacks upon Ahki (our collective lifegiver) and Turtle Island, as well as the consciously-targeted viciousness toward our coming generations and the very foundations of our Nations, are such matters where the solutions will be charted by our women and birthed of connections to each -- connections that outshine any matter of election, intention, or entitlement.

It is not only appropriate -- but critical and necessary -- that we begin to listen to our women in how we chart our course upon these harsh waters if we wish that unprecedented times of challenge are to become times of envisioned opportunity and integrity so overdue.

To our men…

I write this to you today and I truly hope what I've written above has framed my sincere challenge to you in a way that is crystal-clear in not only the reason, but the need for such a fundamental change to come occur.
My Brothers, it is time to do what we can, with good hearts and good minds, to re-empower our true leaders -- our women.

My Brothers, it is time to forever fracture the legacy that undermines the role, significance, influence, and authority of our women in our families, communities and Nations.

My Brothers, it is time to break apart the "Old Boys Club," step aside and create space for the direction, the role, the significance, the influence and the authority of our individual lifegivers to take root into the protection of our collective lifegiver, our coming generations and our Nations -- our women have a connection and central keystone to each that we can only hope to understand.

My Brothers, it is time to begin listening to and hearing our women, respecting our women and their direction in every capacity, from the frontlines of leadership to within our own homes, and to directly challenge where such things are undermined.

My Brothers, it is time to take our cues from our lifegivers and pick up our traditional responsibilities -- and if we are unaware what they may be, take the time to ask and adhere.

My Brothers, it is time to acknowledge the Clan Mothers and our women who hold inherent jurisdiction over the land, to support why they are standing up to lead this movement because the land and water is under assault, and to respect and support the sacred duties to protect each.

My Brothers, it is time -- and that time is long-overdue.

By standing beside our women as supportive sons, supportive partners, supportive brothers, supportive cousins, supportive nephews, supportive grandsons, supportive relatives, supportive co-workers, supportive leaders, and supportive friends -- come what(ever) may -- we walk beside our ancestors and stand beside our unborn, as well.

By standing beside our women, we walk true to the Native Pride of which we speak.

To my Brothers: today I implore you, I beseech you, and in fact I challenge you that in these times so unprecedented -- 'et's support, love, respect, and help re-empower our women in an unprecedented way, as lifegivers, as our direction and as our leaders.

To my Brothers: it is not only sharing in the consequence that will bind us together in an indivisible and unbroken community, but sharing in the common source to us all. Meaning; it is not only in the prevention of negative impacts upon Ahki and our Nations that will bind us together, but by the simple acknowledgement that no matter our age, our Nation, our community, our heritage, our political compass, or where we call home -- we have all come from a womb.

In this way, firmly standing beside our women and restoring that respect and reverence has a very genuine and great potential to heal our past divides, prevent future division of unity, and finally bind us together in unbreakable community upon not only a common and shared threat, but the common beginning we share which we all can (and must) respect.

The writing is on the wall and the road is very clear.

What have we witnessed in times of unprecedented change?

Four women ignited the spark that is illuminating our world.

More fanned the flames which continued to spread its warmth.

Another now puts her life on the line to protect the life pulsing within our Nations, our Treaties, and our coming generations -- following the central vision of Idle No More.

And in Ottawa, women led the way in the march to the Parliament -- just as it should be.

"And strong women will re-create strong Nations…"

It doesn't get any more truthful than that.

May we know, may we acknowledge, and may we fully understand…

Our lifegivers give life to leadership.

Robert Animikii Horton, "Bebaamweyaazh", an Anishinaabe member of Rainy River First Nations of Manitou Rapids (Treaty #3 Territory) and from the Marten Clan, has built a reputation as a progressive and outspoken activist, contrarian writer, and a respected orator on an international scale speaking. He is a sociologist, social and political activist, spoken-word poet, and a supporter and organizer of Idle No More in Thunder Bay, Ontario.

This written work on the topic was prepared and written at the recent request of the Idle No More founders.